Nanoparticles Give Immune Cells a Boost

Nanoparticles give immune cells a boost

There is great news in the treatment of solid tumors like breast cancer and lung cancer. The researchers from MIT have discovered a way to boost the immune system against these solid tumors. They have discovered nanoparticles ‘backpacks’ that can hold the immune stimulating drugs. They then attach them to the T cells which in turn show a great boost in the T cell activity.

In the past, we have seen great strides in the treatment of blood cancers like leukemia and lymphoma. The immune system of the body has been programmed in such a way, so that it can attack the cancer cells. The researchers faced great challenges when it comes to solid tumors as is seen in breast cancer or lung cancer.

Nanoparticles can boost the immunity against solid tumors

The MIT researchers devised nanoparticles ‘backpacks’ which can hold the immune stimulating drugs. The drugs are then attached to the T cells which would boost the activity of the T cells. The greatest advantage is that there are no harmful side effects. The study was conducted on mice and in more than half of the mice that were treated the tumors completely disappeared.

Darrell Irvine who is a professor of biological engineering and materials science and engineering and also an associate of the MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research says that the efficacy of the T cells therapy with the ‘backpacked’ drugs greatly improve. It also helps the donor T cells survive and function effectively. They also found that there were no harmful side effects or toxicity that is noticed when there is systemic injection of the drugs.

A company called Torque Biotherapeutics of which Irvine is a co-founder will begin clinical trials adopting this method.

The working of Nanoparticles in destroying solid tumors

In our body there are T cells which are basically specialized immune cells that identify and destroy the infected cells. Cancer researchers have been studying various ways to harness these T cells to destroy tumors by means of adoptive T cell therapy. They need to develop large amount of T cells that will recognize and attack a tumor. They plan to grow large numbers of T cells which are tumor specific and inject them into the patients.

They have discovered two ways of increasing the number of T cells. One way is to remove the tumor-specific T cells from a tumor biopsy, grow them in a lab dish and then inject them into the patient. The other method is to take the T cells from the patient’s blood and genetically modify them so that they can target a protein that is found on the surface of the tumor cell or expose them to tumor proteins with the hope that the T cells will get activated against those proteins.

These methods have been successful in treating lymphomas and leukemias but are ineffective against solid tumors. They have tried injecting immune stimulating drugs called cytokines along with the T cells. The drugs have harmful side-effects like inflammation since they stimulate any T cell they come across.

In 2010, they attached liposomes to the tumor targeting T cells. These liposomes carry a cytokine payload that stimulates the nearby T cells. This was ineffective as the particles could carry a small amount of the drug and it was released as soon as the T cells were introduced in the body.

The researchers then developed a nanoparticles to carry more of the drug and also release it when it encounters a tumor. The nanoparticles consist of a gel made of cytokine IL-15 molecules held together by a cross-link that degrades when the T cell carrying these nanoparticles encounters a tumor and gets activated. There is a chemical change that takes place at the surface. This was conducted in mice and found effective.

Torque Biotherapeutics have been conducting clinical trials and are planning to test them for various types of tumors. They are also looking at drugs besides IL-15 that could be more effective in stimulating the T cells.


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Quantum Computer Soon to Become a Reality

Quantum Computer Soon to Become a Reality

A new type of computer, the quantum computer is soon to be a reality. Researchers are well on their way to making a billion dollar project a usable computer. This billion dollar quantum computer project based in Sweden will put it on the map. Right now scientists are in the process of recruiting the best in the industry to work on their billion dollar project. Quantum computers are supposed to have far greater computational powers than even your best supercomputers, making it high in demand in various fields.

The billion dollar quantum computer project is a ten year project based in Sweden and to researchers recruiting the right personnel for the project is paramount to its success. If this project goes ahead, it will make Sweden a power to contend with when it comes to quantum computers and it could very well start the second quantum revolution.

The first ever Quantum revolution:

It was somewhere in the 20th century when the first quantum revolution took place. Scientists learnt to use quantum mechanical properties of light and material. Fast forward to today and you have yourself the laser and transistor inventions that underpin today’s technology.

Now scientists have also learnt how to utilize atoms, electrons and photons at a quantum scale. Among the opportunities this opens up are those that have to do with quantum computers, interception proof communication and really sensitive measurements. Apart from all this, quantum computers can greatly enhance artificial intelligence, lead to more secure encryption methods and better designing of drugs and other materials.

Other companies on the way to making a quantum computer:

Many universities and companies including Google and IBM are all on the quantum computer bandwagon.

When it comes to quantum computers the smallest building block or foundation is the quantum bit and the principals surrounding the formation of this quantum bit is completely different from making computers today. What this really means is that in one quantum bit you can store a lot of data, so your average day quantum computer (or maybe not so average computer) will need only 50 -60 quantum bits to function.

But researchers in Sweden are planning to use their 10 year quantum project cycle to create a quantum computer with at least 100 quantum bits. What would one do with such a powerful quantum computer you say? These powerful quantum computers will be used in complex calculations and machine learning.

Improving the life of quantum bits used in quantum computer:

Quantum bits which are the foundation of quantum computer are extremely sensitive.  They collapse if there are any external disturbances. Researchers have therefore painted the inside of an experimental chamber black so that disturbing microwaves that happen to slip through the chamber are immediately absorbed by the black color.

Another significant issue faced by scientists is the process of linking various quantum bits together to perform complex calculation smoothly.

Apart from the above issues, getting many quantum bits to sit inside a quantum computer is easy enough but building a quantum computer within the budget is the main problem.

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Making Morse Code Available to More People on Gboard

Making Morse Code Available to More People on Gboard

Google brings the Morse code compatibility for Gboard on both Android and iOS

Google took everyone in the community by surprise through launching the support for the Morse code on the Gboard as an input method. This feature will be made available both the Android and iOS Smartphones alike from today. It should be noted that the Google has integrated Morse code into the Gboard specifically in the Android OS just after its iconic I/O 2018 and was present in the beta version. But today’s Google has finally brought the stable version of the Morse code support to both the popular OS in today’s era.

Google has also created a unique Morse Typing Trainer game which is aimed at making users understand how to use Morse code. This interactive game can easily teach users Morse code within an hour. Google has taken help of an Assistive tech developer named Tania Finlayson in going forward with the Morse code project.

Use Morse code smartly on Gboard

Google Gboard makes the best use of features and functionalities seen being used in the English keyboard to the Morse code one. Engineers has added some of most used Morse code sequences right to the auto suggestion strip which will make it more simpler and faster to type on any Smartphone.  Gboard turns into a remarkable Morse code keyboard and springs up just dots and dashes for the users to enter the text instead of the usual QWERTY keyboard. Users will also be allowed to hook even some other external switches to their Smartphone thereby offering more freedom to the users with limited mobility.

Gboard with Morse Code will make the world easier for many

People with varied ailments fins it difficult to either type or get the text across on the mobile will be befitted with the Morse capability on the Gboard. Most of such individuals still rely on some of the expensive setup which includes a Morse code emitting device coupled with a printer. This setup allows them to turn their Morse coded thoughts into written letters.

The popularity of the Morse code has simply gone down over the years as less number of individuals is interested in learning it. However those who had learnt it had not just found a language to communicate but new way to express their freedom of speech.  Finlayson has stated that most of the technology we have today are specifically designed for the mass market. Therefore Google has given a due thought towards ensuring that even the people with disabilities are able to make use of the Gboard with Morse code capabilities. Simply by downloading the latest version of the Google Gboard on the Android or iOS device users will be able start communicating with others using the Morse code.

Gboard with Morse code integration bring a whole new world of possibilities to the users where they can use it as a keyboard, an educational app or a game. Secondly everyone will be able to learn the Morse code with ease by simply picking up their Smartphone.

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How Technology is Changing the Travel and Tourism Industry

How Technology is Changing the Travel and Tourism Industry

Technology and innovations have taken the travel and tourism industry to massive heights. There is a tremendous growth in the travel and tourism industry these days it all happened just because of the new technological advancements.

Whether you like it or not technology has played a vital role in changing the traveler’s experience. It has played a sustainable role in achieving economic growth in accumulating information for consumers to travel.

Usually, the tourism industry is often defined as the sectored system of innovation and production and it is extremely complex. The evolvements of technological advancements in travel help them make a substantial impact in tourism.

If you are travelers who love to travel then you will definitely use the technological advancements to plan your trip.

Imagine if you are traveling with no access to flight booking systems, hotel booking, or even basic google maps. You will definitely face problems while traveling without them. Now, these all are nothing but the technological advancements which are created by using technology.

Now for your convenience, I have listed out a few ways on how technology is changing the travel and tourism industry.

travel tech

  1. Dream vacation ideas in your fingertips:

When you use the technology your dream vacation will be at your fingertips. I mean, you can simply choose the best dream vacation ideas on the internet and you can plan accordingly.

Each and every person will have a dream location, then strive to go a place where they love to do something different. If you strive to do that then you have to plan according to by the help of the options available to you. These days there are many options for you to select perfect and luxurious dream locations.

I am having the Bahamas as a dream location and you will have a different location. I have opted for Exuma rentals to full fill my dream vacation and I have done it successfully. If you strive to visit the Bahamas then your best option to get unique experience is by these rentals. These provide lovely luxury villas, which are simply amazing to stay in the Bahamas.

Similarly, if you have your own dream place to visit then you can search for the best and popular luxury treats around you for better costs and enjoys your lovely trip. If you are out of inspiration then check out some best dream vacation ideas and opt for the best and effective vacation you love to visit.

Now, let’s get to the other unique point.

mobile technology

  1. Mobile technology is helpful in the tourism industry:

A Recent study tells that 85% of mobile users use the mobile application to plan their holiday trips. This number itself stats that there is a massive amount of users who are using their mobile. These stats are possibly happened because of the advent application of mobile technologies.

With the help of mobile technology, users can quickly access loads of data on travel and tourism. Customers can view and choose various plans and even they can book their desired trips. Services like short messaging also help travelers and provide a lot of information regarding the booking confirmation.

Now, with these short messages, people can simply go through hotels and airlines check-ins. They can even show download their passes and show simply board on their flight this will say lots of time of them. That’s why it is having a massive impact on the growth of travellers who are using mobile technology.

This is substantially helpful as these phones allow users to access the internet and book their desired services like hotel rooms, cabs, airline tickets and so on.

travel trends

  1. Digital technology helps to identify travel trends:

Digital technology helps you to identify the hot and ongoing travel trends. These days the tourism and hospitality industries have extreme digital transformation compared to the other industries. It really worked for them to grow their users list massively.

Previously, we would be used to visit a travel agent every time when we need a travel to outstations or to plan a family vacation trip. Most of you may not remember that because of the digital transformation available these days for technology.

Today, the technology helps travelers to plan their tours themselves. We should be thankful for the mobility as we can easily get all the required details for the trip. If you want to find a hotel, which matches your style and budget, then you will often find best deals very often. It is all happened because of the digital technology.

This helps to identify each and every travel trends which are currently happening. It’s been said by Forbes that “digital transformation is a mix of greater customer demands” that’s the true statement when we think about the travelers. Some of the top digital trends in travel are mobile integration, Chatbots, internet of things etc.

travel agency

  1. How technology improves on online travel agencies revenue:

The continuous evolution of the digital technology has helped online travel agencies a lot in terms of revenue. As there are having numerous sales throughout the internet and have hell lot of bookings for their services at the best prices.

Technology helped them to increase their online travel bookings and along with that they have tasted an increase in visibility and also had lots of potential customers towards them. These all things helped them to increase their revenue massively.

The online travel industry has grown its sales enormously over the past few years. According to the study it stats then there is a growth of 25% sales then it was in 2015. You can see that this Is a huge amount as in 2015 only travel sales have generated 564.9 billion US dollars. It will definitely cross 830 billion US dollars in 2019.


There are many points which influence technology as it goes hand in hand with the travel and tourism industry. If you are a traveller means you will definitely know the benefits of incorporating technology in the travel. Are you up for suggestions then you can let us know in the comments section below?

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Photonic Fibres: Engineers Design Color Changing Compression Bandage

Photonic Fibres:  Engineers Design Color Changing Compression Bandage

How Photonic Fibres could serve as a pressure sensor

There has been a breakthrough in this field. The MIT engineers have built Photonic Fibres that are shaped into a compression bandage. These Photonic Fibres act as a continuous pressure sensor. On stretching these photonic fibers, there is a change in colour.

When there is less flow of blood to the legs and ankles, the general remedy is Compression therapy. By applying pressure on the affected area, the walls of the veins increase and in turn it increases blood circulation to the affected area and the swelling reduces. The conventional method used is to tie a compression bandage or use a stocking on the affected area. The drawback is that it will be difficult to monitor the amount of pressure that is being applied to the area.

How is the Photonic Fibres useful? 

There is a colour chart by which the patients or their caregivers can monitor the colour by stretching the fiber. Based on the colour, the bandage made of photonic fibers can be wrapped around the affected area so as to reach the optimal pressure level. The is seen in patients who suffer from venous ulcers which affects millions worldwide. In this condition, it is vital that the stocking or bandage is used at the optimum pressure. The Photonic Fibres play a crucial role as they reflect the colours that are easily distinguishable. It basically indicates the pressure level exerted by the bandage.


The working principle of the Photonic Fibres

The fiber is made from thin sheets of transparent stretchable materials. Then a roll of this material is made to form a jelly roll like shape. The roll is about a few hundred nanometers thick.

The interface between each layer is reflected by light. There are various layers of the same thickness and the light will reflect each layer and in turn will enhance specific colours of the spectrum and reduce the brightness of other colours.

The colour of the bandage reflects the thickness of the layers present in the fiber. The colour remains by maintaining the shape of the fiber.

The design of the fiber is affected by the light interference, whereby the transparent sheets reflect the light and give rise to vibrant colours depending on the composition of the material and the geometric dimensions of the layer.

An added advantage is that the colour can be changed by altering the thickness of the layers. For this there is optical modelling methods used for special fiber design. You can create fibers to show green light for optimal strain and red light for high strain.

Making of the compression bandage made of Photonic Fibres

The researchers stitched the Photonic Fibres along the length of the compression bandage. A colour chart was drawn to see the correlation of the fiber strain and colour. The experiment was done on a number of volunteers to check the effectiveness of the compression bandage. They were able to figure out the fiber colours and accordingly apply pressure based on the colour chart.

Outcome of the Photonic Fibres

Based on the results, they found that the Photonic Fibres could enhance compression therapy and thus lessen the duration of treatment. There could be great outcomes in patient treatment and even a great amount of money can be saved in healthcare.

The future of Photonic Fibres

The Photonic Fibres available are only a few inches long. Scientists are looking at ways of producing kilometres of these Photonic Fibres which will effectively bring down the cost.

These photonic fibers can be effective in the sports field as they can indicate muscle strain. It can be effective as strain gauges for scientific tools and machinery. In wearables where high deformations are required, these Photonic Fibres can come into play.

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