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Beyond Graphene: Advances Make Reduced Graphene Oxide Electronics Feasible

Beyond Graphene: Advances Make Reduced Graphene Oxide Electronics Feasible

Conversion of Reduced Graphene Oxide Opens Up a New World for Technological Advances

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon which forms a thin layer of carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb. Isolated in 2004, it has remarkable physical properties that can be applied to a number of things.

The news of its invention created a frenzy in the world of science as Graphene was the thinnest material known which is 150 times stronger than steel and can stretch to 120% of its length. Around the world, research institutions have been trying to develop ways to revolutionize the production of  sheets.

Technology has made this possible by the reduction of Graphene oxide into rGO or reduced Graphene oxide.  This is an extremely vital process which impacts the quality of the rGO produced. It can be achieved by chemical, thermal or electrochemical processes.

It is no news that scientists had already found a number of methods to rGO in the past. This could be done through a number of technological means such as:

  • Treating Graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate.
  • Exposing it to hydrogen plasma or a strong pulse light.
  • Directly heating Graphene oxide or heating it in distilled water at varying degrees.
  • Combining it with an expansion-reduction agent like urea.
  • Linear sweep voltammetry.

The major flaw of this technology is that chemical reduction has resulted in poor yields in terms of surface area and electronic conductibility. Thermal reduction structurally damages Graphene platelets with pressure build-up and release of carbon dioxide. According to recent news, electrochemical Graphene reduction is the best method to produce high quality rGO, which is almost similar to pristine Graphene.

According to Jay Narayan, it is extremely conductive but it is not a semiconductor. That is why he created rGO. Researchers in his lab, Narayan and AnaghBhaumikwere able to convert p-type or positively charged rGO into n-type or negatively charged rGO and create a layered material.

This material can be used to develop rGO based transistors that can be used in electronic devices.  They achieved this by implementing a completely new kind of technology where they combined rGO into the entirety of wafers made of silicon or sapphire.

This successful wafer-scale integration was done through a pulsed laser deposition technique.  The researchers used laser to confuse chemical groups and move electrons across groups, throughout the wafer. This effectively converted positively charged rGO to negatively charged rGO in a process of pulsed laser annealing using a nanosecond ArF excimer laser.

This wafer scale integration is done at regular room temperature and pressure and takes about 1/5th of a microsecond for completion. It results in a wafer with negatively charged rGO layered on the surface and positively charged rGO layered underneath.

The p-n intersection where the p-type and the n-type meet is extremely important for transistor applications. News of this scientific breakthrough has taken the world of researchers by storm as it has opened up a new frontier for further extensive research in Graphene-based functionalized 2D materials.

Research Paper

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Technology

Samsung New Artificial Intelligence Assistant Bixby will take on Siri and Alexa

Samsung New Artificial Intelligence Assistant Bixby will take on Siri and Alexa

Samsung Bixby has all the big guns! Siri better watch out!

Yes, Samsung Bixby has all the big guns! Anyone who watches The Big Bang Theory would perhaps recall the episode in which Penny has a great idea for an app: you take a picture of a shoe and this app searches it for you. With the market flooding with different voice assistants, you would think, this had already been done! But apparently not! Even though technology news keeps updating us consumers about every little thing that happens, there has been no news for this!
Until now!After the very public and very embarrassing debacle with their flagship device, Note 7, Samsung has been thrust quite voluntarily under the public eye once more for its new flagship device the S8 which they are launching with their new player: Bixby.

Sure you know Apple’s Siri, and Amazon’s Alexa and Microsoft’ Cortana, which are basically all AI voice assistants. In fact when Apple released the iphone7, the marketing was primarily strategized around Siri, whose performance, the company claimed has been upped a few notches. And if technology news is anything to go by, they were not wrong.

So how does Bixby endeavour to compete with its existing competition? Before getting into that, it might be prudent to remember that all these apps primarily run via voice commands, so once you change over to any other form of communication, perhaps a touch command, and your task would either be left in medias res, or be begun entirely anew! Frustrating as it may sound, no substantial improvement has been made in this area. Until Bixby that is!

Samsung claims that Bixby unlike other voice-operated assistants, can be used on multiple platforms. It markets the S8 as a completely new way to use your phone. In addition, you can do it via touch; you can use texts or the simplest: your voice, being integrated throughout the device. Of course if technology news is anything to go by, Samsung wants Bixby to perform so unparalleled in its capability so that it can transcend from just a phone interface and can be integrated in all phases of your life, even household appliances.

If you are lost and find it problematic to navigate Google maps, then perhaps Bixby is going to be your best friend because if Samsung’s claims are anything to go by, all you have to do is open the camera and take a photo and the rest of the information would be provided to you by your phone.

Once again if technology news and Samsung’s claims are anything to go by, Bixby is apparently well endowed to follow commands like “show me a picture of Billy. Text it to mom”. If this is to be believed, then there is nothing on the market close to it now and apple must sit up and take notice.

Samsung however does tell you that Bixby operates based on your needs which it picks up from the way your phone has been customised to the apps which are used most frequently. And of course unlike any other assistant, it is also your daily planner and fitness tracker, just a bit better than its competitors.

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Technology

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: The Tough Coating for Silicon

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: The Tough Coating for Silicon

We are living in a society, where the science and technology have taken the center stage of all possible developments and in almost every day, we are witnessing some new concepts or developments in the arena of the science and technology that helps our life and circumstances to be more composed and ease. Very recently some scientists and engineers have developed a method that can be of great help for materials, especially Supercritical carbon dioxide, for various applications, ranging from batteries to the most elegant biosensors1. Some of the relevant issues, related to these developments are as follows:

  • Sreenivasa Reddy Puniredd and his colleagues of an “A” Star Material Research and Engineering institute have developed a simple and new way that can be helpful to deliver the essential protective molecules by using the Supercritical carbon dioxide, popularly known as scCO2.
  • In this process, the normal Carbon Dioxide is being converted to the Supercritical carbon dioxide under extremely high pressure, when this becomes the free-flowing liquid, which is chemically inexpensive, inert and comparatively more environment-friendly than other traditional solvents.
  • The research team used the Supercritical carbon dioxide, scCO2, in carrying molecules, known as alkyl thiols, which is having a long chain of carbons and an atom of Sulfur at one of the end. Here Sulfur forms the stable bond with the silicon, while water-repelling chains of carbons make the tightly-packed skin on the surface of the silicon.
  • This is a simple green method, where the silicon forms the oxide layer on the surface at the time of exposure to moisture and air, which have the potential to detract from its own electronic properties. It can be noted that the adding of the molecular “skin” to the silicon is providing a physical barrier to prevent oxidation, but by forming these monolayers could have been tricky and require longer processing time, as well as, the inert atmosphere or demanding the uses of the harmful solvents of organic nature.
  • In applying the coating, researchers had used alkyl thiols that contain seven to eighteen atoms that could coat germanium, silicon and the silicon nanowires. Each of the procedures took almost few hours and able to produce monolayers of 1.6 nanometers to 2.3 nanometers of thickness, which are able to resist wear and in repelling water to a great extent. The most notable and greatest effect had been seen for the longest chains of alkyl thiols.
  • These monolayers also having the potential of protecting the surface, more than fifty days, from oxygen. These are prepared by using the conventional solvents, had been typically stable for the shorter period of time, even less than one week. It is stated that the increase in the stability was an expected issue, but such a longer stability was a real surprise for the research team.
  • Ths Supercritical carbon dioxide technology can be used in the modification of a different variety of inorganic surface and it may be worth mentioning that this technology is able to enhance the stability and enhancement of the respective film, apart from being scalable.

Material

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Technology

Materials That Emit Rainbows

Materials That Emit Rainbows

A New Discovery: Rainbow Emitting Materials

There is no dearth of amazement in the world of science. The news of the existence Mechanochromic Luminescent Materials or commonly known by their abbreviation MCL and are very popular among tech enthusiasts and physicists and even the masses for the simple reason; when these materials come in contact with the presence of certain pressure or temperature, or when there is a shift or change in the atmospheric pressure or temperature, they change their normal colours.

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Technology

How Artificial Intelligence is Refashioning the Retail Industry

How Artificial Intelligence is Refashioning the Retail Industry

Artificial Intelligence is Changing The Way Of The Retail Industry Quietly

Currently we make use of technology each day to buy online through the E-commerce websites which helps us in keeping in sync with latest fashion. But fashion has been in relation with technology for ages. About twenty years ago a famed designer called Alexander Mc Queen made use of two robots for spray painting on the model’s white dresses. If you think that it was a long lost blurred coming together of fashion with the modern day advancement then the last years ‘Manus x Machina: Fashion in an Age of Technology’  theme in the Met Ball will strike more cords.

As stated earlier the narrow bridge between the technology and retail world is closing down and turning into a single entity. This is the result of the incredible rise in the online shopping along use of the Artificial  intelligence which is simply changing the way people shop and they will shop in future.

Retailers believe in Artificial intelligence

Blue Yonder has conducted a survey few months ago wherein more 750 groceries retailers from all across the globe were asked questions specifically related to the decision making and customer service. Their survey has shown that the most of groceries retailer understands the in upcoming years the robotics, Artificial  intelligenceand machine learning will play a vital role in the retail industry. More than 77 percent believed that AI and machine learning will make a huge impact while rest of the retailers believed it is happening already.

Benefits of using Artificial intelligence in retail

By adding the Artificial  intelligence along with machine learning to the decision making has helped businesses in becoming highly efficient. On such German retailer has seen a remarkable difference in their business altogether.

  • €20m less waster through making replenishment projections.
  • Out of the stock products turned down by 20 percent as retailer was to get right products in right quantity at the right time.
  • €5 m in capital savings with price optimization
  • €5 m efficiency came into the savings due to streamlining of the processes.

Some of the incredible advantages brought by the use of the Artificial  intelligence and varied other technology includes not just boost in the business potential, efficiency but also a notable increase in the revenue. Decision making process is certainly enhanced by the AI which helps store managers in taking right decisions related to products in small amount of time.  Forecasting the demand of product, ordering, pricing and scheduling process tends to get streamlined.

Predictive analytics and customer behavior analysis has received a huge boost and automation further helped the retail industry. Employees were able to concentrate on their core capability which related to ensuring that the business runs in full swing without any hassle. Machines & technology takes away the pain of dealing with the monotonous decisions while the team behind the upcoming and established retail chain can work on innovations and make some of the much needed strategic decisions with ease and grace.

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