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Technology

Scientists Borrow from Electronics to Build Electric Circuits in Living Cells

Scientists Borrow from Electronics to Build Electric Circuits in Living Cells

Electric Circuits in Living cells: A great mile stone in modern biotechnology

Bioengineers are able to specifically transform the genetic program of cells. In this way they are endowed with new characteristics or abilities that are not so innate but productive. The reprogramming of cells with electric circuits- currently the most dynamic field in synthetic biology – is based mainly on the technological breakthroughs in modern biotechnology.

Genetic methods have been used here for decades to transform microorganisms or cells into living factories for certain natural products, chemicals or pharmaceutical active ingredients. Biotechnologists are here like mechanical engineers, in order to conceive, build and then also continuously check in the cells to tailor-made cells with electric circuits – “production roads”.

While a new biosynthesis pathway is being integrated into a cell in metabolic engineering, some researchers in synthetic biology are pursuing the vision of transforming cells into an intelligent device, which can also be controlled externally through electric circuits. For this purpose, the bioengineers want to develop a catalog with standardized genetic components or switch modules and to assemble them into complex control circuits and electric circuits, which can be specifically controlled.

Their example is electrical engineering, where individual electronic components such as transistors, resistors or capacitors are combined into integrated electric circuits. Such circuits can be standardized and take over so many functions. Intelligent connection of the electric circuits results in complex circuits or even in the construction of living computers.

In fact, bioengineers have a variety of molecular modules at their disposal: genome researchers have already discovered numerous molecular gene switches. With such gene switches – these can be proteins, DNA or RNA molecules – the activity of genes can be precisely controlled.

They can therefore be switched on and off in a controlled manner. Also components of cell communication are always better understood. Optogenetic switches – ie, gene switches that are controlled by light – also offer new scope for controlling the cells in their external behavior.

If such switch modules are linked with other molecular components, then complex control circuits – so-called genetic circuits – can be assembled. The research team of University of Washington are among the pioneers of this approach borrowed from electrical engineering and computer technology. Some notable progress has already been made.

Milestones include a genetic toggle switch, or complex genetic electric circuits that enable cells to process or store binary information like a computer. A catalog with standardized genetic components for bioengineers – the BioBricks – has been developed by UW Researchers.

There are also first application-oriented examples of genetic electric circuits and reprogrammed cells in medicine. Researchers of UW, equip cells with a genetic program that reacts to certain stimuli from the outside and then begins with the production of a substance. This will make the designer cells live measuring station and drugstore in one (to application medicine).

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Technology

Flexible Pressure Sensors Similar to Suction Cups Mat Based on Octopus Suckers developed

Flexible Pressure Sensors Similar to Suction Cups Mat Based on Octopus Suckers developed

Prototype Krake: New adhesive material with artificial suction cups

Bionic material has best adhered in a moist and oily environment.
With by means of its fine hairs on the feet – called Spatulae – a gecko keeps itself on electrostatic forces even on very smooth surfaces. In a wet environment, however, this adhesion effect fails. As a model for a new, bionic adhesive material similar to suction cups, which also functions in moisture, Korean researchers have now refined the filigree structure of the suction cups of octopuses. As reported in the “Nature” journal, their suction napkins also adhere well to moist skin and are suitable for novel wound dressings.”Mikrometer small structures in our artificial adhesive material increased the suction effect,” Sangyul Baik and his colleagues from Sungkyunkwan University in Suwon explain the basic principle of adhesion. First, the researchers examined the suction cups of the Common Octopus (Octupus vulgaris) and recognized specific bulges in the small cup-shaped troughs. Thanks to this microstructured suction cups, octopuses can cling to slippery rocks under water, or even their beasts of prey.Suction cupsThese microstructured suction cups were copied by the material researchers with a flexible plastic film. They first pressed small troughs with diameters between 15 and 500 micrometers into a thin layer of silicone rubber. They filled the liquid precursor of a polyurethane-acrylate polymer and cured it under ultraviolet light in the micropipes – about 5,000 per square meter. In this case small, dome-shaped bulges were formed in the troughs. If the researchers pressed this bionic film onto a damp surface, it reliably sucked in with adhesive forces of over 40 kilopascals. If silicone oil was used instead of water, the adhesive forces even rose to 180 kilopascals.

Baik and colleagues were responsible for this effect. On the one hand, air was pressed out of the troughs by lightly pressing the suction napkin, and a small vacuum was built up. This adhesion was strengthened by capillary forces, which could be formed thanks to the filigree bulges. The greater adhesion in an oily environment, the researchers explained with the higher viscosity of the liquid compared to water. Even several thousand times detached, the suction napkins retained their adhesion effect.

Suction cups _2

The researchers found the best results with suction cups with a diameter of 50 micrometers. This film adhered reliably even on damp skin. As a first application, Baik proposes new types of patches to cover inflammatory and wetting wounds. But the thin silicon wafers for the production of computer chips could also be lifted out of the reaction baths with this suction napkin. “This approach could be used to move robots, biomedicine or toys,” says Jonathan Wilker from Purdue University in West Lafayette, assessing the Korean results in an accompanying commentary.

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Blogging Tips

How to Get Free User Generated Content for Your Blog?

How to Get Free User Generated Content for Your Blog?

What exactly user generated content is?

Simple; the content that is not authored by you but written by another person.

Launching a blog these days is a kid’s play; it can be online in a matter of minutes provided one has already decided on a name for his blog and searched for an available domain.

However, building it into a successful blog irrespective of the niche is all about creating high quality content that the readers will be genuinely interested in.

So, what high quality content is?

Put yourself into the shoes of a reader for a moment and forget about being an author. When you have searched for some information and chose to click on a link among several other search results and ended up spending several minutes reading the displayed web page and did not click on any other link to acquire any further information, then, you have just read high quality content.

However, if you kept clicking on the results for the desired information, then, the links that contained the information are said to contain worthless content.

Sites with high quality content are called authority sites and they naturally rank high in the Google search results.

However, writing all that content yourself can be intimidating and tedious. You have to do a lot of research to come up with a ‘Pillar Post’.

User Generated Content _1

Can you name an authority site for example with user generated content?

Yes. Shout Me Loud. It’s an odd name alright undoubtedly the number one blog in India. Even such a site is filled with top class content that all are not written by the owner of the blog Mr. Harsh Agrawal. A team of writers are engaged who are all co-authors. In addition, you can read posts written by guest authors in shoutmeloud.com

The guest authors are not rewarded financially. In return, they are given a link back to their website and that is worth a lot of money.

In the above instance, Shout Me Loud blog got a very high quality user generated content totally FREE.

Therefore, if your blog is filled only with pillar posts, you never have to write another piece but fill it up with free user generated content of high quality.

It becomes easy for such a successful blog to add high-quality content written by guest authors in exchange for a link back to their website.

When you gather a team of multiple expert authors, your blogs gets filled up with free high quality user generated content that engages the readers fully and does not allow them to navigate away from the content.

Finding these guest writers can be as easy as contacting other bloggers who are already established in your niche and telling them that you will begin accepting their high-quality user generated content in exchange for links.

Other ways to get free user generated content.

The avenues are many to let the word out that your blog accepts free guest posts in the same niche of your blog and in return, you give back one or two links to the guest writer.

  • In your ‘contact us’ page, you can declare that you accept guest posts.
  • You can frequently tweet about your willingness to give free backlinks from a high quality website. The word ‘free backlinks’ will work wonders buddy.
  • The same thing can be posted in Facebook, blog and internet marketing related forums.
  • Use the right Google plus communities to announce your intention of getting free user generated content.

I know of very popular sites on the web that survive solely on free guest written user generated content. In fact, it is how blogs of high repute work.

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Gadgets

Twit IQ Gadget Review: Google WiFi – Hassle Free Router

Twit IQ Gadget Review: Google WiFi – Hassle Free Router

A Net for the Whole House: Google Wifi is a Wireless Revolution

From now on Google Wifi, which in the modular principle a WLAN network spans. What it can and if it perhaps even better than a FritzBox WLAN system…

The WLAN of a router has only rarely enough range to ensure in apartments or even houses in every corner still a good Internet connection. The network can then be extended, for example, with WLAN repeaters or via Powerline via the sockets. However, in many systems, the transmission rate decreases with increasing distance or a new network are stretched, in which a device has to register again in order to go online. This will make Google Wifi better. It spans a so-called mesh network with multiple nodes that communicate with each other.

Google WiFi _3

If a user moves from place to place in a mesh network with a device, his wireless connection is automatically passed on to the node with the strongest connection without requiring a new login. The network has a common SSID. In the ideal case, the transmission rate drops only slightly when the distance to the router is small.

This technique is not new, very large mesh networks, for example, provides free-wheeling. Existing solutions for the home application are however relatively expensive, Google Wifi is comparatively cheap: A single device costs 140 euros, in a double pack 250 euros.The Google device is child-friendly and is implemented via the iOS or Android app. Connect the first device to the router, scan QR code, assign name and password – that’s it in principle already. Other nodes are added similarly quickly and easily.

This is something Google can do – you also notice the app through which devices and network are managed. It is simple, clear and provides all the necessary information about the function of the network. This includes the connection strengths of the individual nodes or the transmission rates for a connected device – in real-time or over a longer period of time. In addition, you can set up a guest access or restrict access for children. Good thing is that you can dim the lights of small, white cylinders. Better yet, you could turn off Google Wifi completely, if you do not need it, for example, at night.

Google WiFi -1

You need a Google account to set up, and only the account owner can add additional administrators. The Google Wifi connection of a smartphone to the nodes is encrypted. Google promises to collect nothing but diagnostic data. If you do not want that, you can remove the authorization in the settings. “We earn money by selling the devices,” said a Google manager at the presentation. The principle of collecting data for advertising would not exist in this case. Google Wifi Connections to devices to be constructed depending on the location and interference automatically in the 2.4 or 5 GHz band. In addition, Google Wifi is constantly searching for the channel in which least other devices are broadcasting.

The Fritzbox gets it also

So far the theory – in practice, has been in the approximately 80 square meter test apartment but not everything worked as perfectly as expected. Because the range of a device is relatively short. Because the router is behind a supporting wall, a second device had to be placed at a distance of about 5 meters to keep the signal strength high. In order to reach even the most remote point of the apartment with acceptable signal strength, a third node had to be installed, with the lack of sockets not an ideal location. The Fritzbox Cable 7590 used as a router creates this distance in the 2.4 gigahertz network at almost the same transmission rate all by itself.

In order to span a mesh network with high signal strength in the entire apartment, a total of four nodes were necessary. But then the network worked almost perfectly. The connection remained constant during movement and the handover of the nodes was virtually non-delayed.

For users who have only got a simple router from their provider, Google Wifi is such a good solution, in order to be able to span a widescreen WLAN network. But the principle is not revolutionary. If a newer Fritzbox is in the household, the investment is rather unnecessary. In combination with repeaters or powerline adapters from the manufacturer, a similar mesh cover is also achieved without difficulty and relatively inexpensively.

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Blogging Tips

6 Chrome Extensions for Every Blogger

6 Chrome Extensions for Every Blogger

Whether you are a blogger or simply a casual browser of the web pages based on your myriad interests, you need to know some of the extensions for your Google Chrome browser. I assume you use only Google Chrome; if not, please do it. It is the safest web tool on the Internet for a blogger.

These extensions (there are of course many more) would help you (blogger)  in:

  • Making your work simpler and faster
  • Keeping your privacy safe
  • Staying away from untrustworthy websites
  • Keeping your credit card transactions safe
  • Retrieving your password

 

wot blogger toolAnd many more uses.  Any extension you install on your browser can be easily removed if you have no further use. Using these extensions would slowly make you innovative in finding new ways to use it and in the process would make you a professional. Mind you, there is a vast difference between a professional browser and a casual user of the World Wide Web.

I have used these extensions in the past and I still use some of them.

Click&Clean

The first step to enjoy the data on the web is browsing free of worries. Remember, your digital nomadic footprints need to be kept safe from peeking into and you need to avoid getting SPAMMED in future because you have not protected yourself while you go online.

Click&Clean lets you:

  • delete URLs
  • clear caches
  • remove cookies
  • wipe your browsing history

etc with just a single key stroke. I would strongly recommend it to my blogger friends and that’s why I placed it on top of the list. Basically, you should be wary of sites that you visited tracking you through cookies planting on your system.

Google Similar Pages

I have been using this very useful web tool for long. It helps you find a website that is similar to the one that you are currently on.

Suppose let us say you are on a website that allows you to promote your latest blog post and you feel like finding similar websites and you start searching the Internet. This would be a laborious task and very time consuming.

Finding web sites similar to the ones you like is made easy with this superb extension.

blogger tool _2

GetHoneyBadger

Are you a compulsive online shopper? If so, you will be exposing your credit/debit card details to highly professional data thieves. There are more online dangers than you are probably aware of.

GetHoneyBadger is a wonderful spy and a silent one too. It will check the sites you shop from and will give you an insight into whether that particular site is suspicious  or not by revealing which technologies the site is using.

Web of Trust

The name of the extension is suggestive enough. It rates a website considering different metrics such as its privacy policy, vendor reliability and even child safety too. Bu using this extension, you can safely stay away from harmful web pages.

Allowcopy blogger tool

Allow Copy

At times, while doing your research online, you would stumble onto useful information and you would want to copy it and paste it on your system. However, the author of the website would have disabled the copy and paste function. This extension would re-enable it. Very smart-eh?

LastPass

I am sure you have guessed the purpose of this extension. Yes, it is your free and personal password manager. Bloggers and internet marketers need this very useful plug-in. It remembers all the usernames and passwords we created and automatically logs-in to the web sites when we visit again and again.

I would urge you bloggers to install and play with these useful chrome extensions today.

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